Māori suicide rate calls for new strategy

Copyright: John Murphy

New data shows that suicide rates among Māori people have risen to their highest level in a decade, and the rate among Māori men is double that of non-Māori.

Why should this be so?

Dale Husband speaks with Matthew Tukaki, executive director of the New Zealand Māori Council and former chair of Suicide Prevention Australia.

Tēnā koe, Matthew, nice to catch up with you again. That’s a disturbing kaupapa, isn’t it? More than 600 people took their own lives last year, many of them Māori. Let’s look at the Māori men’s stats. What’s your gut feeling as to why twice as many of Māori men would do that, compared with non-Māori?

The first thing that I’d say is that what I’ve learned over many years is that suicide is very complex, and no two suicides are the same.

The data that was released the other day by the Ministry of Health is the 10-year trend data, and it shows that there’s been a steady increase in the number, but it stops at 2016 because that’s the period that they analysed.

But the more recent data is probably the most heartbreaking of all.

In the 2018 year, the suicide rate in New Zealand had reached 668 New Zealanders.

That in itself is a big number, but the evidence tells us that, for every completed suicide, around 20 other people attempt to take their life.

It’s likely that more than 13,000 New Zealanders attempted to take their lives last year.

The Māori suicide rate was 142 deaths, or 23.72 per 100,000 New Zealanders, which is the highest since 2007–2008.

The first thing is to understand that this rate has been steadily increasing for more than 10 years, and it seems to be getting worse.

But, from what I’ve learned in suicide, not every suicide death is about mental health problems.

People with deep depression, psychosis, anxiety, and that sort of thing are often people that we know about and can help.

But a good number of suicides are people that have never reached out for help, and to be honest, a lot of it has to do with the daily struggle of life:

  • relationship breakdowns,
  • whānau breakdowns,
  • loss of access to children,
  • the failure of a small business,
  • long-term unemployment with no light at the end of the tunnel.

All of these things make up what is the tragedy of suicide.

I look at the reaction to road deaths each year. They’re a similar number, and there are all sorts of actions taken to reduce the number: lowering speed limits, widening roads, more frequent breath testing — all of these initiatives to try and curb a trend that we are all disturbed and disappointed by. I can’t see the same level of initiative going in to combat suicide. What are we missing here?

New Zealand had a national suicide prevention strategy that expired in 2016.

We currently have no national strategy, and while the government talks about putting money into a wellbeing budget, there’s no specific replacement for the earlier strategy.

You can just throw a lot of money at suicide in New Zealand.

It’s actually not the money, it’s the structure of how we deliver services and to whom we’re delivering them.

And you can’t get away from the fact that, with Māori people, it’s not just one thing.

There’s a plethora of social barriers and problems that are against us at the moment, such as the recent kaupapa about Oranga Tamariki.

If you read the reports about the number of deaths of young Māori, in particular, you start seeing threads of attachment to the Oranga Tamariki system.

These young Māori may have spent a period of their life in state care, and although that may not have been the thing that pushed them over the edge, it’s part of a life that’s being lived tragically.

Take the example of Māori men who are released from prison.

Life on the outside is often not what they thought or hoped it would be, even though they were working on reintegration on the inside.

So you have all of these different things that go around, and there’s no cohesive strategy around how we work across this plethora of social issues to bring the rate of suicide down. Continue reading

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